1. The Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame recently announced their 2016 Inductees, both contemporary and historical. Anne Evans is one of the four historical nominees to be inducted at a Gala dinner on March 16, 2016.
Here is what the Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame said about Anne’s qualifications that influenced their selection:
“Anne Evans – Cultural and arts leader – Denver, CO. Influenced creation of many of the state’s artistic and cultural institutions. First woman president of Denver Public Library Commission; founding member Central City Opera House Association, established Central City’s world-renowned opera festival; founding member Denver Artists Guild; member Denver University’s Civic Theater Board of Directors; member Governor Speer’s Civic Center Project development team. Started movement for appreciation of American Indian art, donating santos collection to DAM; raised funds to establish Commission for Preservation of New Mexico Mission Churches. Named ‘Woman of the Year’ by Denver Professional and Business Women’s Club; bronze bust of Evans commissioned for Denver Art Museum; ‘Leading Citizen’ award in fine arts category, Civic Princeps; ‘Anne Evans Observation Point’ designated in Central City.”
2. The Colorado Business Hall of Fame will hold its annual black tie event on January 28, 2016, at which it will induct six new members. These male and female laureates are both contemporary and historical. Anne Evans is among this number.
Here is what the Colorado Business Hall of Fame says are the qualifications required for selection for this very prestigious award:
“Colorado Business Hall of Fame laureates are part of a league of outstanding individuals who have made legendary contributions to the free enterprise system. Through their actions and accomplishments, the Colorado Business Hall of Fame laureates provide inspiration for the next generation as they take the reins of leadership in the years to come.”
About the specific reasons for selecting Anne Evans for this signal honor, the Business Hall of Fame cites the following:
“Anne Evans played a major role in helping develop many of the institutions that transformed Denver into a viable modern city. Among them are the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Public Library, the restoration of the Central City Opera House, and the development of the Central City Summer Opera Festival. All of these cultural jewels required tireless and ingenious fund raising.
Anne Evans is also largely responsible for less well known endeavors. She organized hundreds of volunteers to get the bond issue passed which allowed the land to be purchased for the City and County Building. She was pivotal in various family business pursuits such as the Evans Investment Company, which has owned and managed major parcels of prime Denver real estate. She created viable market and business opportunities for the native weavers, potters, and artisans of the Southwest.
Anne Evans was truly a business woman of her time whose many contributions helped define Denver as the business and cultural center it is today.”
Two lively current exhibits, organized by History Colorado, complement a lavishly illustrated new book by Stan Kuba (1) and focus attention on the 1928 founding of the Denver Artists’ Guild. The exhibits, featuring the work of many of the 52 founding members, are at the Byers-Evans House Museum and the Kirkland Museum. They will be on view through September 26 and are well worth a visit!
The response of far too many people, on becoming aware of these events, is, “What is the Denver Artists’ Guild? I never heard of it?” Indeed, an article in Westword (June 26, 2015) proclaimed that that these exhibits and the book bring “AN OBSCURE CHAPTER OF LOCAL ART HISTORY TO LIFE.”
If you do not feel as well informed as you would like to be about the Denver Artists’ Guild, now is the perfect time to remedy this deficiency and have a good time in the process. Go see the two exhibits, then spend a few evenings reading the new book on the Guild and marveling at its profuse and handsome illustrations – reproductions of the work of many of the 52 founders of the Denver Artists’ Guild.
Foreword by Hugh Grant (2)
Hugh Grant rightly points out, in his brief and informative foreword, that a 2009 exhibit at the Denver Public Library was the effective forerunner to these current events about the Guild. Stimulated by the research of Deborah Wadsworth, a tireless volunteer in the Western History Department of the DPL, the exhibit Fifty-Two Originals featured work by many of the 52 founders of the Denver Artists Guild. Hugh Grant gave a lecture about the guild at the Denver University School of Art and Art History, “I think practically all of my listeners…were struck by the scope and quality of the 106 works of art representing 42 artists. Because all exhibitions must end, a number of us determined to do something lasting to preserve the history of the guild. This book is the result.”
Introduction by Cynthia Durham Jennings
Information about the Guild, and about the lives and work of the 52 founding Guild members, would be infinitely less complete without the many years of patient research done by Cynthia Durham Jennings. Her research centered at first on her father, Clarence Durham, a major founding member and five-term president of the group. After his death in 1994, Cynthia began looking into his background and his long-standing membership in the Guild, with a view to “writing a book about him to help preserve his legacy.” (3)
As Durham Jennings’ research efforts became more widely known, several individuals seeking information about other founding members approached her. When she realized how little was known about the Guild and its members, she resolved to widen the scope of her project. She recruited two colleagues to help her in what proved to be a time-consuming and difficult task – gathering information about as many of the 52 founding members as was humanly possible. Many of the original members had died or moved away from Denver, some of the women had remarried and acquired new names. On the positive side, family members, when traced, often provided photographs, biographies, and locations of artwork that was photographed. All possible sources, from old scrapbooks kept by Guild members to the Internet, were canvassed.
Using the material so gathered, Stan Cuba, Associate Curator of the Kirkland Museum of Fine and Decorative Art, “prepared the members’ biographical entries, helped with the final selection of color reproductions and captioned them, and wrote an extensive historical overview, introducing readers to the general subject of the guild and documenting the heretofore little-known story of its fifty-two founding members.”
Cuba’s Story of the Denver Artists Guild
The Denver Artists Guild – renamed the Colorado Artists’ Guild in 1990 to better describe its area of activity – is the second oldest artists’ organization in Colorado. The oldest is the Denver Art Museum, which had its origins in the Denver Artists’ Club, founded in 1893. The Guild’s original membership included many of the best-known Colorado artists of the day, including Dean Babcock, Albert Bancroft, Donald and Rosa Bear, Frederic Douglas, Clarence Durham, Anne Evans, Gladys Caldwell Fisher, Laura Gilpin, Elsie Haynes, Marion Hendrie, Vance Kirkland, Waldo Love, Albert Olson, Paschal Quackenbush, Anne Van Briggle Ritter, Arnold and Louise Ronnebeck, Paul St.Gaudens, Elisabeth Spalding, David Spivak, John E. Thompson, Allen Tupper True and Frank Vavra.
The mission of the new 1928 organization, as described in the Rocky Mountain News (June 10, 1928) on the occasion of the opening of the Guild’s first exhibit of members’ work, was “To promote a spirit of professional cooperation and maintain a high standard of craftsmanship among the artists of Denver and vicinity, (and) to bring to the attention of the public representative works of these artists in painting, drawing, sculpture, ceramics and the graphic arts (etching, lithography, etc.)”
Development of the Denver Art Museum
In his chapter on the history of the Guild, Cuba tells the story of the evolution of both the Denver Artists Guild the Denver Art Museum. He describes how local Colorado artists were active in the DAM’s programs and played an essential role in its development. But he also makes clear that, as perhaps an inevitable result of the widening sphere of the DAM’s activities, there came a time when it could no longer fulfill the needed function of nurturing and sustaining local artists.
Originally the 1893 Denver Artists Club was an organization of Colorado artists dedicated both to increasing public awareness of the offerings of local artists, and to educating the public about developments in the wider world of art – nationally and internationally. The group sponsored annual juried exhibits, not only of members’ work, but also featuring well-known artists from the East and Midwest. From the beginning, the Club sought Associate Members to augment its financial resources and to help carry out its mission in the wider Denver community. In 1917, feeling that it’s original name was too narrow as a description of its activities, it was renamed the Denver Art Association.
The organization began to collect the beginnings of a permanent art collection, which, until 1922, had to be displayed in galleries of the Museum of Natural History in City Park. In that year, a huge boost in the fortunes of the Art Association came with the donation to it of Chappell House, a large mansion at 1300 Logan. Though falling short of the Art Association’s ultimate objective – a spacious museum on the new Civic Center – Chappell House was an invaluable asset, the DAM’s first real home. In 1923, the Denver Art Association became the Denver Art Museum. It began a long journey, not only to secure its coveted place on the Civic Center, but also to become the official “art arm” of the City and County of Denver. (4)
A Need that could no longer be Ignored: The Story of the Denver Artists’ Guild
And so, by 1928, the artists of the growing Denver area “felt the need for a successor organization to the Denver Art Association and the Denver Artists Club. They desired the backing of a formally constituted, democratically oriented group open to all Denver-area artists capable of sponsoring their own traveling and annual exhibitions. They also sought to encourage among the city’s artists the same mutual support and enthusiasm they had experienced as members of these two predecessor art groups through monthly meetings and lectures, sketching trips, dinners, and other social events.” (5)
Albert Bancroft, a Colorado native and a well-known Denver artist, was the leader in the 1928 organization of the Denver Artists Guild, ably assisted by two other prominent Denver artists, Dean Babcock and David Spivak. According to Stan Cuba, “Most of Denver’s artists responded to Bancroft’s invitation to join the guild, initially paying annual dues of $15 per person – not an inconsiderable sum at that time. However, when the Great Depression began to negatively impact artists’ incomes, dues dropped to only $3 per year.” (6)
Cuba goes on to describe in detail the structure of the new organization, its lively program of activities for members: weekly Guild meetings, monthly dinner meetings with substantial and informative programs offered by members, sketching trips, sessions of constructive criticism of current members’ works. The Guild, in addition to its artist members, “solicited twenty-two patron members. Their yearly dues of $20 provided the fledgling group with additional capital for its organizational activities, particularly promoting the artist members by funding the Guild’s annual exhibitions…”
In the next section of his 37-(large) page essay on THE DENVER ARTISTS GUILD, Its Founding, Activities and Legacy, Cuba describes the work of the Guild and its members through the First World War and the explosion of unconventional modes of artistic expression, the Great Depression, and World Ward II. He describes the locations where the work of many members during this time, in murals, sculpture and paintings, can still be seen – from the State Capitol to the Civic Center, and to restorations of commercial buildings like the newly remodeled former Colorado National Bank Building complete with its original murals. Also he talks of the many art projects executed under the aegis of the Federal Government during the Depression era, in post offices and other public buildings.
1948: A Split in the Artists Guild
Cuba describes the Colorado artists’ version of a split that had been developing locally and nationally, since the beginning of the twentieth century, between traditional painters and those exploring ever more adventurous modes of artistic expression. In Denver, the actual split started with Vance Kirkland, then an important figure on the Denver art scene and the Director of the Denver University School of Art. Vance infuriated Rocky Mountain News reporter Lee Casey with a public comment to the effect that “people who don’t know anything about art should keep quiet.” (7)
Casey responded, in a Rocky Mountain News column, “Painting, as I view it, ought to bear at least some resemblance to what it is supposed to represent, and I can’t see that surrealistic paintings – or, for that matter, the paintings of any other special school since Picasso and Cezanne botched things up – do that… We are, I am confident, advancing beyond the stage when the most-applauded painting might just as well be hung wrong end up. True art is timeless, and within a few years an original Picasso or Cezanne will be valued mainly for the frame. ”
At this point, artist William Sanderson entered the fray. Sanderson was a talented artist and an eloquent teacher at the DU School of Art. He was an active member of the Artists Guild, though not a founding one. His response to Lee Casey was titled “Pioneers in Art.” He wrote, “If the artist (in our society) has the temerity to deviate from the phony formula of “tourist painting,” he is labeled a fake, a zany and generally a moral leper…This part of the country is proud of its pioneer tradition…the term pioneer is not confined to men who rode in covered wagons. Many artists are still trekking across the arid wastes of our intellectual deserts. They have a vision and they hope it is not a mirage. In the meantime, instead of being scalped, the modern artists could use a helping hand once in a while.” (8)
As the Guild’s vice-president and program chairman, Sanderson was experiencing the group’s “underlying conservatism and some members’ disdain for modern art.” Along with Sanderson, four other members seceded from the Guild to join a new group, Fifteen Colorado Artists, which was composed mainly of faculty members from Denver University’s School of Art.
The Guild leadership was a first afraid that the split would permanently fracture the comradeship of Colorado artists. But, in Cuba’s words, “All parties managed to weather the storm. In 1948 both groups displayed simultaneously in adjoining galleries at Chappell House…The Denver Monitor reported that both shows generated unprecedented public interest, confronting their viewers with the controversial questions of modern versus traditional art.” Cuba suggests that in one way the split benefited the Guild: it gained a new sense of unity it had previously lacked, due to “growing controversy within its ranks.”
Over the years, the animosity between Guild and the Fifteen Colorado Artists softened. The Guild began to feature guest artists in its annual shows whose work was far less conservative than that of most of the Guild members. And in 1963, William Sanderson was invited to be one of the jurors for the Guild’s annual exhibition.
Summary: The Contributions of the Founding Members of the Denver Artists’ Guild
It was something of a shock to read the first words of Cuba’s final paragraph in this section of the book: “Although all of the organization’s founding members are deceased…” A shock because I personally knew a number of those members, so this statement is quite a reminder that I have indeed “grown old!”
Cuba concludes by paying a final tribute to these artists, “the art they created and their multi-faceted cultural pursuits remain an integral part of the cultural heritage of Colorado and the Rocky Mountain West.” (9)
1. THE DENVER ARTISTS GUILD: ITS FOUNDING MEMBERS. An Illustrated History by Stan Cuba. Foreword by Hugh Grant. Introduction and Acknowledgements by Cynthia Durham Jennings. Published by History Colorado in 2015.
2. Hugh Grant, Founding Director and Curator, Kirkland Museum of Fine and Decorative Art, Denver.
3. Cynthia Durham Jennings, Introduction and Acknowledgements, p. 10
4. This “journey” is described in my book, Anne Evans, A Pioneer in Colorado’s Cultural Development: THE THINGS THAT LAST WHEN GOLD IS GONE, Barbara Edwards Sternberg with Jennifer Boone and Evelyn Waldron.
5. Stan Cuba, op cit, p. 22
6. Stan Cuba, p. 24
7. Stan Cuba, p. 46
8. Stan Cuba, p. 46-7
9. Stan Cuba, p. 49
GROUND BREAKING SOON FOR NEW BUILDING FOR “DENVER’S MOST INTERESTING MUSEUM”
On January 27, 2014, the Kirkland Museum announced that it was moving from its historic site at 1311 Pearl Street to a new location at 12th and Bannock. Its new site will put it squarely in Denver’s Golden Triangle Museum District, near the Denver Art and Clyfford Still Museums. Groundbreaking will take place very soon, but before I describe briefly the whys and wherefores of this major new art project, I would like to sketch the character and history of the Kirkland Museum.
THE “QUIRKY KIRKLAND”
An article in the April 27, 2008 issue of the Denver Post asked the question, “Is this Denver’s most interesting Museum?” The subject was what the article’s author, Kyle MacMillan called the “quirky Kirkland Museum.”
WHAT’S UNIQUE ABOUT THE KIRKLAND?
According to MacMillan, the Kirkland, when measured by today’s museum standards emphasizing, “the slick, streamlined and structured, is hopelessly out of step. It happily takes a kind of Victorian approach to showing its collections, however modern or contemporary the objects themselves might be.”
IMAGINING THE REACTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY MUSEUM CURATORS -AS WELL AS THOSE OF MUCH OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC – TO THE KIRKLAND’S DISPLAYS!
They “probably shudder…because of the sheer plethora of objects packed into every conceivable cranny and the seeming disorder of it all…Painting, sculpture, furniture, ceramics, a hodge-podge of now-classic, mass-produced consumer goods from the past hundred years or so; it’s a jarring, if adventurous, place to spend an afternoon.”
“Yet”, says Macmillan, “it all works.” Partly, he guesses, this is because Hugh Grant, the Founding Director and Curator of the Kirkland Museum, “is not a museum director by training. So there is a refreshingly unbridled, free-form approach to everything the Kirkland does.”
WHAT EXACTLY IS THE KIRKLAND MUSEUM?
According to the museum’s description of itself, it is “An eclectic assemblage of art, furniture, glassware and other objects, centered on the work and collections of Vance Kirkland (1904-1981) best known for his abstract paintings.”
A BIT OF HISTORY
Kirkland’s original studio, part of the Museum, was built by artist Henry Read and is the second oldest commercial art building in Colorado. It is second only to the Van Briggle Pottery in Colorado Springs. Read was one of the 13 founders of the Denver Artists’ Club in 1893 – the organization that eventually metamorphosed into the Denver Art Museum. The 1911 building was designed in an Arts and Crafts style and served for many years as Read’s own Students’ School of Art.
THE UNIVERSITY OF DENVER’S DEPARTMENT OF ART
In the early 1890′s, the University of Denver had a flourishing Department of Art, but between the late 1890′s and 1929, it appears to have gone into eclipse. In 1929, as a result of a rigorous evaluation of all the University’s offerings by a committee headed by Henry Suzzalo, its Report made tough and wide-ranging recommendations for change. One proposal was to add three new new departments – social work, librarianship and fine arts.
ANNE EVANS AND VANCE KIRKLAND
Anne Evans, with her lifelong commitment both to Denver University and to the flourishing of the arts in Denver, was an enthusiastic supporter of the revival of a Department of Art – and probably the source of the suggestion that an appropriate head start should be the acquisition by DU of an existing School of Art, the Chappell School. Frederick Hunter, Chancellor of the University, and Henry Suzzalo, author of the ground-breaking Report, traveled to Chicago to interview a promising candidate to head up the new Art Department. This was Vance Kirkland, who was teaching at the Cleveland School of art and widely considered to be a promising young painter.
Kirkland came from Ohio to Denver and in 1929 became head of the new Department. Anne Evans undoubtedly welcomed the arrival of the energetic, creative new figure on Denver’s art scene. But the cordial connection between them was severed in 1932, when Vance made a drastic break from Denver University. This was over D.U.’s refusal to accredit a B.A. degree in art studies alone, which Vance felt to be a betrayal of what he was promised. He left the University, leased Henry Read’s property (which he later bought), and opened the Kirkland School of Art – taking most of his DU students with him. Kirkland arranged for accreditation of his classes by the University of Colorado Extension Center in Denver, thus initiating the art program at what is now UCD – the University of Colorado at Denver.
The Art Department at DU continued, though weakened by Vance’s defection. Anne Evans was appointed to a three-member Advisory Committee to the Department, a post in which she served until her death in 1941.
A MOVING RECONCILIATION
I was touched by Hugh Grant’s memory of a conversation he had with Vance Kirkland. Like everyone who knew Anne Evans well, Vance was aware, towards the end of 1940, that her days were numbered. He made a decision to visit her. He wanted to tell her how much he appreciated all she had done for the arts and for artists in Denver, and especially how much he admired her incredible efforts to save the old Central City Opera House and establish the summer Festival there. He told Hugh Grant that, as he took Anne’s hand, they both “teared up.” There was a genuine healing of their broken relationship.
VANCE KIRKLAND RETURNS TO DU
Anne Evans died early in 1941. The DU Department of Art continued to operate, though hardly to flourish. In 1946 the Chancellor of the University was able to offer Vance Kirkland satisfactory terms to persuade him to return as head of the Art Department, bringing back to DU his Kirkland Art School students.
When my husband and I arrived at the University of Denver Campus in the fall of 1947, we were introduced to Vance and his wife Anne. It was apparent that Vance was heading up a lively and very successful Department.
My husband, Gene Sternberg, had been appointed Associate Professor of Design at the brand-new School of Architecture and Planning. He invested his utmost energies in building up the School – as did the rest of a remarkable faculty. But alas, it was not enough. Denver University had done once again what it did so often in the past – founded an expensive professional program that it did not have the resources to support on a long term basis. The dynamic Director of the school, Carl Feiss, saw the handwriting on the wall and accepted a position at another, more stable, architectural school. Denver University asked Vance Kirkland to step in and take on the leadership position at the School of Architecture, in addition to his duties as head of the Art Department. It was only a matter of time until the School of Architecture and Planning closed its doors – in 1952.
KIRKLAND RETIRES – TO BECOME A FULL-TIME ARTIST
Vance Kirkland continued his leadership role at the growing Denver University Department of Art until his retirement in 1969, all the while continuing his constantly evolving career as a painter and using the 1311 Pearl Street facilities as his studio. After his “retirement,” until his death in 1981, he simply devoted all his energies to painting, constantly creating new ways of expressing what “his mind could see.” Over his lifetime as a painter, Kirkland moved through five distinct styles of expression.
Vance’s wife, Anne, died 1n 1970. Vance soldiered on, greatly helped by the efforts of a young friend, the son of long-time friends and supporters of Vance’s work. This was Hugh Grant, whom Vance eventually nominated as executor of his estate. In 1996, Grant established the Vance Kirkland Foundation to preserve Kirkland’s legacy.
KIRKLAND MUSEUM OF FINE AND DECORATIVE ART OPENS ITS DOORS IN 2003
Hugh Grant became the Founding Director of the new Museum, located in Kirkland’s studio and adjunct quarters at 1311 Pearl Street. The unique Museum showcases not only more than 1,000 works by Kirkland, but also the works of contemporary Colorado artists and craftsmen, and a growing assortment, based on Vance Kirkland’s own collection, of “decorative works, many from the Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau and Art Deco periods, mostly from 1970 through 1980.”
ABOUT HUGH GRANT
For his activities as Director of the Kirkland Museum the multi-talented Hugh Grant has received many awards. These include the 2015 Citizens of the Arts Award from the Fine Arts Foundation, the 2009 Bonfils-Stanton Foundation Award for Contributions in the Field of Arts and Humanities, the 2000 Historic Denver-Ann Love Award for Historic Preservation and the 1999 Mayor’s Award for Excellence in the Arts. Grant also received more than a dozen awards for his role as Executive Director of three art documentaries aired on PBS stations. The PBS show, Antiques roadshow, was taped at the Kirkland for two days in July, 2009.
Grant studied for two years at Tufts University and completed his B.A. at Colorado State University in1967. In 2003, he received an Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree from the University of Denver. (Information from the Kirkland Museum’s Profile.)
Working through the Kirkland Foundation, Grant has built on Vance Kirkland’s collection of Colorado and Regional Art, a collection which now includes over 650 work by more than 200 artists. He has also expanded Vance’s own collection of International Decorative Art to what is now recognized as one of the most important such displays in North America. The collection concentrates on work from approx. 1875 to c. 1900. (Information in this section from the Kirkland Museum’s Profile of Grant.)
ADVANTAGES OF NEW SITE FOR THE KIRKLAND MUSEUM
There are three huge advantages of the new site over the existing one.
First is the factor of exposure. Charming as the 1311 Pearl St, location is, it is out of the mainstream of cultural traffic. The site at 12th and Bannock will put the Kirkland right into the lively circle of central Denver cultural venues – the History Museum, the central Denver Public Library, the Byers Evans House Museum, the buildings comprising the Denver Art Museum, and the Clyfford Still Museum. The Kirkland Museum, which already attracts an unexpectedly high volume of visitors, will see a great increase in numbers.
Second is the always important matter of parking, which is distinctly limited in the current location. The Museum was fortunate to have the resources to purchase a 26,000 square-foot space for parking, adjacent to the new Museum site.
And last, but by no means least, the new structure will double the size of the existing gallery space at the Pearl Street location. According to one report, the Museum will have “19,000 square feet to show off its collection of 15,000 objects by such names as Frank Lloyd Wright, Frank Gehry, Andy Warhol, Eero Saarinen, Philip Johnson and Mies Van der Rohe.”
(“Move to new digs a big deal for Denver’s Kirkland Museum”, article in Denver Post, 1/27/2014.)
CHAMBERS FAMILY FUND – MAJOR SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR NEW MUSEUM
The Chambers Family Fund, headed by Hugh Grant’s wife, Merle Chambers, will supply the funding for the new Museum. The Fund is well-known in Colorado as a generous donor to museums, theaters and performing companies throughout the state. It was a major contributor to the Ellie Caulkins Opera House and the Clyfford Still Museum.
DESIGN OF NEW KIRKLAND MUSEUM QUARTERS
The new building will be designed by Olson Kundig Architects, a Seattle firm with what Denver Post Fine Arts Critic Ray Mark Rinaldi describes as “a distinguished resume of residential and civic projects.” (“Move to new digs a big deal for Denver’s Kirkland Museum” article in Denver Post 1/27/2014.)
Important for lovers of the existing Kirkland Museum is the news that the new building will incorporate Kirkland’s entire studio, “bricks and all,” into the new building. This contains the structure where Vance managed to hover above his laborious “dot paintings,” and work on them for hours, supported by an ingenious system of straps.
With two of my daughters, I finally made it to the new Renaissance Hotel in downtown Denver – and it was well worth the effort. The old Colorado National Bank has been handsomely brought into a 21st century role, and in the process its unique Allen True murals have been honored and preserved.
RESCUING MURALIST ALLEN TRUE FROM OBLIVION
Like so many early pioneers in Denver’s cultural history, muralist Allen True had been mostly forgotten when Jim and Maggie Barrett bought his home and studio in Denver. They decided to acquaint themselves with True’s life and work. As a result of their extensive research, their travels to meet some of his descendants, and their discoveries about his murals in State Capitols and commercial buildings throughout the U. S., an impressive 3-location exhibit of True’s works was staged in Denver in October, 2009.The locations included galleries in: the Denver Public Library Western History Department, the Denver Art Museum and History Colorado. The Barretts also stimulated the making of a PBS documentary, “An American Artist”, about True’s life and work, and were involved in its production. The reputation of Allen Tupper True was resurrected – rescued from obscurity.
FIRST ALLEN TRUE BIOGRAPHY
Publication of “Allen Tupper True: An American Artist” in 2009, simultaneously with these other events, contributed greatly to this renewed public recognition of True’s achievements. “This first definitive biography of the Colorado artist Allen Tupper True (1881-1955) was written by True’s eldest daughter, Jere True and her daughter, Victoria Tupper Kirby. It relies on letters, diaries, and contemporary news accounts as well as family history to describe his artistic evolution from illustrator to easel painter to muralist. The lavish illustrations include most of True’s murals (both extant and destroyed), a selection of his major easel paintings, as well as some of his sketches and cartoons and Indian-inspired designs.” (Visit allentuppertrueanamericanartist.com) Copies of the original hard cover book sell on Amazon for the astounding price of “from $2,904 up.” (The paperback sells for $18.03 and up.)
THE LOVELY OLD GIRL COMES ALIVE!
“The Lovely Old Girl Comes Alive!” was the reaction of Joan True McGibben, Allen True’s granddaughter, to the opening of the Renaissance Hotel. She said that “it was with utter joy that I walked into her lobby filled with people, gleaming marble and my grandfather Allen Tupper True’s murals alive again in vivid color and eliciting excitement and respect from the crowd.” (Visit allentuppertrueanamericanartist.com)
ANNE EVANS AND ALLEN TRUE
Anne Evans played a quiet but significant role in True’s career. She was his first patron, commissioning a painting from him to hang over the fireplace in her mountain home of the Evans Ranch. For this she apparently paid $500, a considerable sum in those days. She also significantly involved him in the ambitious project to salvage the Central City Opera House and develop an ongoing summer festival. True was appointed to oversee the restoration of the Opera House. To be able to devote the necessary time to this, he moved his family to live in Central City.
THE MURALS IN THE RENAISSANCE HOTEL
The Renaissance Hotel offers to the visitor a fascinating reprint of a 1923 booklet, Indian Memories, in which Allen True talks about his murals. “The Indian in mural decoration has usually been depicted as surrendering to the Whites, making treaties with the Whites or fighting the Whites. Seldom if ever has he been accorded the dignity of standing alone on his own intrinsic worth or beauty.” True goes on to describe an aspect of his thinking about the current status of the Indian – an aspect which was also predominant in Anne Evans’ attitude to the pueblo tribes of New Mexico, for whose values and ways of life she had so much appreciation. True says that, “The method of presentation (of the murals) is through a series of retrospective visions – the Indian dreaming of his vanished glory.” The attitude was not only that tribal values could not survive, but also, curiously, that the Indians were actually disappearing. Perhaps, given the huge toll that Western diseases were taking, the relentless wars, and their increasingly being exiled to inhospitable places, the expectation may have seemed reasonable.
In her paper about the Hopi tribe, Anne Evans wrote, “I would advise all of you most strongly to make a pilgrimage while you can yet get to this fountainhead, for it can’t last very long. The people are dying out, they are not very robust and our method of civilizing them is apparently quite disastrous even to their bodies.” (Theosophical Quarterly pages 309-315, April 1912)
Jim Barrett pointed out that True and Anne Evans had in common a passionate interest in the well-being and the accomplishments of American Indians. Allen True tried, through his work, to persuade America to adopt – as their own national symbology – the beautiful and original design motifs of American Indians rather than those of European origin. Anne Evans took a deep and personal interest in the work of promising young Indian artists in New Mexico, helping to set up artistic training that would encourage them to use their own tribal motifs in their modern work.
ABOUT THE NEW RENAISSANCE HOTEL
In the May 15, 2014 announcement of the opening of the new Hotel, Renaissance Hotels said “one of Denver’s most iconic structures, the historic Colorado National Bank Building, has reopened its doors as the new 230-room Renaissance Denver Downtown City Center.” There followed a useful brief account of the building’s history.
“Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Colorado National Bank Building was designed in 1915 by famed Denver architects, William and Arthur Fisher. Originally erected as a four-story building on the corner of 17th and Champa Streets, the area was then deemed the ‘Wall Street of the Rockies.’ The building’s neo-classical, Greek revival architecture is highlighted through its towering white exterior columns and walls, created with marble from the Colorado Yule Marble Company, he same marble used to build the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Large monogrammed doors open to the three-story atrium, constructed with marble flooring, ornate bronze accents and the most secure vaults in existence at the time – details that remain as part of the hotel’s design experience.”
The Hotel offers a variety of experiences to the visitor. While I was a little ambivalent about the furnishings decor of the huge atrium, I greatly admired its provision of intimate spaces in which small groups can sit and visit in comfort. The decision to use the vaults, their huge doors expressing fine industrial craftsmanship. as private dining rooms, is creative. There is an engaging history wall, with a detailed explanation of True’s murals “as well as artifacts, mementos, architectural imagery and photos from the bank’s storied past.” A complimentary walking tour available by smartphone gives information about the building’s art work – both the historic murals and a new collection of contemporary work by emerging Colorado artists. It also talks about about the “hotel’s unique culinary offerings.” These include “cocktails and dishes available onsite that use local ingredients or spirits.” We settled for a satisfying breakfast, but are motivated to head back there soon for an interesting lunch or dinner.
All images courtesy of Francesca Starr
There have been several new entries in the public debate about the role of Anne Evans’ father, Territorial Governor John Evans, in the Sand Creek Massacre 150 years ago, and about the degree of his responsibility for the subsequent removal of the Arapahos and Cheyennes from Colorado Territory.
- Report of the John Evans Study Committee, University of Denver, was issued in November 2014.
- Colorado’s Land Grab: On the 150th Anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado Admits the Eastern Half of the State was Build on the Coerced Cession of the Arapaho and Cheyenne Homelands. Headline of an article in the Denver Post (November 23, 2014) by Gregory Hobbs, a Justice of the Colorado Supreme Court.
- Several discussions on television about the Sand Creek Massacre and the degree of Territorial Governor John Evans’ responsibility for it.
- Sand Creek: The Civil War’s Forgotten Tragedy – Article in The Smithsonian Magazine, December 2014
WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH THE STORY OF ANNE EVANS?
Those of you who have read my book about the life of Anne Evans may remember that a question about Anne and the Sand Creek Massacre was raised early (p. 7). In a discussion about the challenges of writing the story of someone who ordered all her personal papers destroyed after her death, I mention several “mysteries” that were difficult to resolve, because of the the lack of adequate documentation. One of these: “Was there any truth to the conjecture (advanced by several historians) that her concern for the well-being of the Indians of New Mexico arose out of guilt for the Sand Creek Massacre, which occurred during Governor Evans’ term of office?”
Weighing all the indirect evidence available to me, I concluded that the answer to this question was “No.”
But I did include in the book an entire chapter (p. 66-80) on Sand Creek and After. This was as part of the life story of Anne’s father, John Evans, in the discussion of Anne’s family background. I was therefore very intrigued when both Northwestern University and the University of Denver decided in 1913 to form Study Committees. These were to search for answers to questions raised by students and others about both Universities’ consistent portrayals of Evans – a prominent founder and early benefactor of both institutions – as a heroic figure, making many contributions toward the the public good. Never a mention of the infamous Sand Creek Massacre, which occurred on his watch as Governor of Territorial Colorado, and which ended his tenure in that position.
TASKS OF THE UNIVERSITY STUDY COMMITTEES
1. Did Territorial Governor John Evans bear any responsibility for the Sand Creek Massacre? If so, what exact policies and actions of his as Governor contributed to that horrendous event?
2. Were any of the generous financial gifts that both universities received from John Evans derived from the long term results of the Massacre – the removal of the Plains Indians from Colorado Territory and the inheritance of those lands by American immigrants and settlers?
3. To the extent that the Universities’ Study Committees found Evans responsible, and that some of his financial success resulted from the Massacre and its aftermath, what measures should the institutions now take to atone for their 150-year silence and their profiting from the historical results of the Infamous Sand Creek Massacre?
I have reported on the results of the Northwestern University Study Committee’s investigations in a recent Anne Evans News: http://tinyurl.com/northwesternjohnevansreport. In the next newsletter, I will summarize the evaluations of the University of Denver’s Committee with its more sweeping criticisms of Evans’ policies and actions and its recommendations.
NATIONAL DISCUSSION OF THE SAND CREEK MASSACRE RESULTS IN A MORE SEARCHING EVALUATION OF THE SYSTEMATIC EXPROPRIATION OF NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS AND DESTRUCTION OF THEIR WAY OF LIFE.
Both the Denver Post article of November 25, 2014, (Colorado’s Land Grab) and the Smithsonian’s “Sand Creek: The Civil War’s Forgotten Tragedy,” raise the national issue of the uglier aspect of the Civil War.
“We remember the Civil War as a war of liberation. But is also became a war of conquest, to destroy and dispossess Native Americans.” So asserts Tony Horwitz, author of the Smithsonian article.
“COLORADO’S LAND GRAB: On the 150th anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre, Colorado admits the eastern half of the state was built on the coerced concession of the Arapaho and Cheyenne homelands.” (Article by Gregory Hobbs in the Denver Post.)
This direct linkage of the battles of the Civil War, fought with the noble intent to outlaw slavery, with the simultaneous battles against Native American tribes, aimed at conquest and the expropriation of their lands, was new and disturbing to me.
But it has the ring of truth. And it does raise the question: How far could the actions of any one man – e.g. John Evans, the Territorial Governor of Colorado – really be responsible for an overwhelming tide of history? A tide that was based on attitudes – towards land use and tenure, individuals and community, held by the surging masses of immigrants – that were totally incompatible with the beliefs about relationships between earth, nature, and tribal community, held by Native Americans.
The University of Denver’s Study Committee’s contributions to this important, and far from simple, discussion of the significance of the Sand Creek Massacre, will be the subject of the next Newsletter.
I spent the entire day last Sunday reading.
- Reading this 113-page report on John Evans’ relationship to the Sand Creek Massacre, issued at the end of May, and also related news coverage of the document.
- I also investigated the status of a similar enquiry being conducted by the University of Denver and learned that the DU Report report has not yet been issued.
- Finally, since the Massacre was instigated by Colonel Chivington, a prominent Methodist Minister, and since Governor Evans himself was a devout Methodist, I reviewed the actions of the Methodist Church in relation to the massacre, and, more broadly, their attempts to have an honest confrontation with official Methodist attitudes towards Native American populations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Why a Report on This Subject So Many Years Later?
Anne Evans’ father, John Evans (1814-1897), was a major founder of Northwestern University in 1851, when he lived in Chicago. John Evans was a significant influence on, and donor to, the institution for the rest of his life. He was appointed by Abraham Lincoln as the Second Territorial Governor of Colorado in 1862. He was forced to resign from that position in 1865 after Congressional and military enquiries into the brutal – and totally unjustified – 1864 massacre of a peaceful group of members of Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes camped at Sand Creek. One Congressional Committee, dissatisfied with Evans’ indecisive answers to their questions (he was in Washington when the massacre occurred) recommended that Evans be removed as Governor. After the assassination of Lincoln, the new President Andrew Johnson requested Evans’ resignation. Evans complied on August 4, 1865.
The Sand Creek Massacre, 150 years later, is still an unhealed wound.
Northwestern University’s Always Glowing Account of Evans’ Life, Achievements, and Contributions
In recent years, some students, faculty and other community members have raised questions about the University’s complete silence regarding the massacre that abruptly ended Evans career as Governor. Some questioned whether “the University has glorified someone who does not deserve such treatment. Conversely, others have wondered whether the critics are subjecting Evans to the sort of a historical character assassination that judges a person in the past by the standards of the present.” (1)
Appointment of Study Committee
In the winter of 2013, Northwestern University’s Provost, Dan Linzer, appointed a committee of nine scholars – five from the faculty of Northwestern and four from other universities – “to examine in detail Evans’s role in the massacre.” Provost Linzer also asked the committee to try to determine “whether any of Evans’s wealth or his financial support to Northwestern was attributable to his policies and practices regarding Native Americans in Colorado while he was in office.” (ibid p. 2). The Committee was to issue its report by June, 1914.
Overview of the Report
The Report is a scholarly – and readable – document. It consists of 91 pages of text, plus extensive Chapter notes, bibliographical lists, links to Key Documents and Websites, and Acknowledgements.
The six chapters of text are: The Introduction, Chapter 1, which describes in detail the incomprehensible Massacre, characterized by one contemporary General as “perhaps the foulest and least justifiable crime in the annals of America.” (ibid p. 9) The Chapter describes briefly John Evans’ major contributions to the University, why its site – the town of Evanston – is named after him, and poses the questions before the Study Committee: about why the Massacre is never mentioned in University accounts of Evans’ life, and what exactly was his role, and degree of responsibility, for the tragic event.
Chapter 2 summarizes Evans’ life and relationship to Northwestern. Chapter 3 is about the historical background to the Massacre, a concise but thorough presentation. Chapter 4 details the course of events, during Evans time as governor, that led up to the massacre. Chapter 5 describes the aftermath of the massacre – the public outrage, the enquiries, and the Governor’s resignation. Chapter 6 details the Committee’s conclusions.
This is a brief summary of the report’s contents. The next Newsletter (or two!) will be devoted to its content and, especially, to a discussion of its conclusions.
1. Report of the John Evans Study Committee, Northwestern University, May 2014, p. 2
2. Ibid, p. 10
A Little Good News!
With all the distressing, even alarming, world news today, it is a pleasure to report on two recent good news items in Colorado.
Headlined “Disputed Treatment Center Sends Alums Out Into The World”, a Denver Post article on August 20 celebrates the graduation of the first 11 formerly homeless people from the new residential treatment program at Fort Lyon.
As I reported in a previous Newsletter (March/April, 2014), “Fort Lyon was the jumping-off ground for Colonel Chivington’s brutal massacre at Sand Creek” and then had successive reincarnations as Veterans’ Hospital and Colorado State prison. In 2013, it embarked on a completely new mission, becoming a state-funded shelter, addiction treatment facility, and job-training center for the homeless.
After quite controversial legislation authorizing this program was passed, there was considerable speculation as to whether any of the homeless (especially from Denver, site of Colorado’s largest homeless population) would voluntarily get on a bus to go to a distant destination in one of the most rural areas of the state. Governor Hickenlooper was a major supporter of this new and positive role for Fort Lyon. The Denver Post, in a May 12,10 1913 editorial headlined OK, GOVERNOR HICKENLOOPER, FORT LYON IS YOURS NOW was frankly skeptical about the chances for the project. “If it fails, voters will know where to place the blame. And if it succeeds, we will be the first to credit the governor for his commitment to the idea.”
As of the end of November, 2013, 70 homeless people had taken up residence in the facility. They came from 15 counties, most from Denver, with 100 more on the waiting list. So this August 20, 2014 article is a welcome update on the lives of these new residents. Everyone is required to work, with a wide variety of tasks to choose from. Along with Bent County employees, the Post article reports, residents replaced the entire sewer system and are now working to restore a row of former officers’ quarters. One woman works in 41/2-acre garden she started.
Residents each get a personalized recovery plan. There is a walk-in clinic and they can attend on site Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotic Anonymous meetings. They can improve their job skills by taking courses at nearby Otero Junior college and Lamar Community College.
The article is a positive one, both about the program’s effects on the formerly homeless living there, and on the economic well-being of Bent County. But no effort on the Post’s part, that I have yet seen, to carry through on its promise that, if the project to rehabilitate many of the homeless from Front Range cities in this very rural – and historic – setting succeeds, “we will be the first to credit the governor for his commitment to the idea.” Perhaps it is too soon to declare the latest use of old Fort Lyon to be a success – but it certainly looks promising.
A couple of weeks ago, I finally made it, with a good friend, to see the Union Station development. We traveled by the RTD train from Jefferson County’s “Taj Mahal” – my first experience of that fairly new transportation development. The whole experience was quite exhilarating.
The first pleasant surprise was to find the original Union Station happily fulfilling a dual role. The main waiting room area is still filling its original function. It is a public space, with comfortable furniture, a relaxed and welcoming atmosphere, and interesting stores and places to eat in the spaces around the waiting area. All the upper floors now are rooms in the Crawford Hotel, named for Denver’s urban renewal pioneer, Dana Crawford.
We ate lunch at one of the cafes with outdoor tables and chairs, facing the large public open space in front of the Station entrance from downtown Denver. It has borrowed and enlarged Aspen’s idea of an installation of a rectangular series of fountains shooting up and falling randomly, inviting children to run through it – with a high possibility of getting soaking wet. This central feature is surrounded by pedestrian space. There were a few children daring the run, and strollers passing through the space. (I couldn’t help wondering just what will happen in the large fountain area in the winter months.)
We did not have enough time to explore the rest of the impressive Union Station redevelopment project, with its new buildings and pedestrian areas. I only got a rough idea of the location of the three transportation terminals on the site – for “real” trains, RTD trains, and RTD buses, so I intend to make another visit soon. But I saw enough to feel that this Union Station redevelopment project will become a new magnet for interesting activity – in a once-deteriorating segment of the central area of Denver. And I thought again, with gratitude, of former Governor John Evans who wouldn’t give up on his seemingly ridiculous vision of Denver becoming one of the great cities of the United States.
Amid all its recent coverage of the rebirth of Denver’s Union Station, with its “$54 million addition of “a hotel, shops, restaurants and bars” (1), the Denver Post made a little excursion into our city’s early history. They reminded readers that, more than a century before the 1980′s, when the city “was choking on a brown cloud of pollution and struggling with a decaying downtown and a sputtering economy,”(2) a gleeful leader in a rival city had pronounced Denver “too dead to bury.”(3)
The year was 1865, and Denver’s leaders had lost the battle to have the transcontinental railroad routed over the mountains and through their city. The Union Pacific Railroad understandably took the easier course through Cheyenne, Wyoming. Denver’s economy, already adversely affected by the Civil War and the stagnation of gold mining, plunged into what could have been a death spiral. Population declined, business dwindled. The dire economic times forced the Colorado Seminary, forerunner of the University of Denver – which had opened with high hopes in 1864 – to close its doors.
The city’s economic turnaround was largely due to the stubborn and persistent efforts of one man, John Evans. At the time, Evans was embroiled in his own serious troubles following the October,1864 Sand Creek Massacre, the issue over which he lost his position as Colorado’s Territorial Governor. Nevertheless, when “a representative of the Union Pacific came to Denver…in 1867 to suggest that the businessmen of Denver should form a railroad company and build a line to Cheyenne with help from the Union Pacific, there was an immediate response from men like David Moffat, John Evans and William Byers.”(4)
In my book, I describe the almost superhuman efforts of John Evans to assure the success of this venture, involving “an overwhelming series of financial organizations and reorganizations, contracts with construction companies, and congressional lobbying to secure land grants. At one point, with no prospects and construction at a complete standstill, Evans resigned as president of the board of directors and signed a contract to build the railroad and pay off its debts. At the beginning of 1870, Evans again became President of the Denver Pacific Railroad, and was on hand at the Denver Depot. when the tracks finally reached the city on June 23, 1870.“(5)
The first incarnation of the Denver Union Station opened in 1881 – described as an Italianate structure with two stories and an 180-foot tower. The center section burned in 1894, and the entire structure was razed in 1914 to make room for the new neoclassical station which opened in 1917.
1 Jaffe, Mark, “Denver’s renovated Union Station has been a 30-year barn-raising,” Denver Post, Business Section, pg 1 Sunday, July 13, 2014.
4 Sternberg, Barbara E. with Jennifer Boone and Evelyn Waldron. Anne Evans – A Pioneer in Colorado’s Cultural History: THE THINGS THAT LAST WHEN GOLD IS GONE. Evergreen: Buffalo Park Press with Center for Colorado and the West Auraria Library. 2011. pg 77.
5 Ibid. pp 77-78
As I enjoyed the celebrations of the holiday season, I remembered one aspect of Anne Evans’ personality, which I have not yet had an opportunity to “blog” about. This was her incredible zest for life. Spending any time as her guest was, by all accounts, a rare and enjoyable experience.
- After a few day’s stay at Anne Evans’ mountain home, one guest wrote on behalf of a small group, The hospitality of your friendly home quite overwhelmed us all…Dr. Steiner said ‘in some homes one sees only wealth and material plenty, but In Miss Evans’ home one sees love and a great spirit.‘ I(p. 345)
- In the research about her life, I found several accounts of her idea of hosting children as guests at her home on the Evans Ranch and quoted my favorite: A young niece and nephew, aged 11 and 13, were sent to spend a summer on the ranch with their Great Aunt. They were interviewed. Wide-eyed and apprehensive, they were told that one rule and one rule only must be obeyed. They trembled. “You must have a good time!“ (p. 346)
- Anne Evans enjoyed the creative effort of devising plays and pageantry, both as part of the elaborate summer life up on the Evans Ranch, and as a participant in social and artistic activities in Denver. One such occasion was vividly described by Miriam Washburn Adams, remembering the time she was an art student from Colorado Springs, taking classes in the Denver Atelier headed by architect Burnham Hoyt, a longtime friend of Anne Evans. (pp. 356-8)
Miss Anne told Burnie she had written a medieval play she wanted acted on the stairway in her Mt. Evans home. She wanted ten members of the Atelier to come up Friday and give the play Sunday evening. Burnie sent word to us to be at Willie Mead’s studio by 4:30 Friday afternoon. They had medieval costumes we could be squeezed into…I assure you as we drove through Denver, in the then popular open cars, we were gazed at–catcalls, boos, etc….Miss Anne all but expired when we tumbled into her house all dressed in these costumes! We looked wonderful that evening, in her out-of-this-world house with the enormous logs that made the inside as well as the outside…At breakfast, I will admit, we were a wild sight…
Burnie had us working all day Saturday…making all kinds of necessary crowns, horses, stars, out of cardboard; and believe you me, they had to be perfect–we were working for a perfectionist–but luckily one who could point the way to perfection. One development almost brought the project to a halt. After the most delicious lunch Saturday…it turned out a poisonous toadstool had been lurking in the lunch bowl. Sunday produced a sorry lot of actors. Burnie was the color of chalk. I was all right if I could sit down. By three in the afternoon most has recovered and they started rehearsing. At six, they gave the play.
Margaret Evans Davis (Anne Evans’ niece) read the words on the other side of the screen as she wove her tapestry. Most of us were holding positions and draped up the stairs–Burnie and another man having a big tilt or joust on wooden horses at the top of the stairs. It really must have been fantastically lovely.
The audience for this intense effort was small (seven in all including Anne Evans) as it was for many other efforts on the ranch over the years. The reward was apparently more in participating than in the applause.
This is the second of a three-part blog post concerning Anne Evans’ article about the Hopi Indians, their art and their Snake Dance, which was discovered after the publication of her biography.
To read the previous article, click here.
Anne Evans concluded her Fortnightly Club paper with a sensitive and well-informed description of the the Hopi Snake Dance. This was the subject of an earlier article, The Hopi Snake Dance, a Religious Ceremonial, the third of those that have surfaced since the biography’s publication. This article was published in the Theosophical Quarterly in April, 1912. In both articles, Evans gave a brief description of her own experience of watching parts of the Snake Dance, or, as she preferred to call it, “the dramaturgy of the Sun-serpent Myth.” It is not easy to find a satisfactory definition of dramaturgy that fits the sense in which she is using it. Perhaps the best one is “shaping a story into a form that may be acted.” She wrote both descriptive pieces in the present tense.
The Snake Dance, she says, “is an elaborate nine-day prayer for rain that the crops may ripen and our children have food–then, afterwards that we too may have to eat.” In the Hopi world, the snakes are wise Elder Brothers who, because they live underground, have “intimate relations with the spirits of springs and the germinating seeds.”
Only the dramatic events of the eighth and ninth days are performed publicly, but she observes that the entire ceremony had already, in 1912, been witnessed and written about by scientific observers, who had gained the trust of the Hopi and so were freely admitted to the kivas where much of the first parts of the ceremony take place. As a broad generalization, Evans says, the first seven days are devoted to preparation and consecration.
- Altars, symbolizing rainclouds and lightning and the serpents of the four world quarters, are painted with colored sands: always yellow for the North, green or blue for West, red for South and white for East.
- Pa-hos or prayer sticks, of which eagle feathers are an indispensable part, are prepared and consecrated, and deposited by bearers at surrounding shrines on the plains.
- The bearers, on four successive days, make a complete circuit around the base of the mesa. They visit the farthest shrines on the first day. The circuit is contracted on each succeeding day, in the hope that the gods may “likewise so approach, the dry river-beds be swollen with water and the farmers hear the pattering of rain.”
- Four days are also allocated to the capturing of the snakes. The hunt is ritually conducted, one day each to the North, East, South and West. “…afterward these formidable Elder Brothers must perforce undergo the priestly purification by water, smoke and breath before being duly laid upon the altar.”